7 Ways to Avoid Re-Traumatizing a Trauma Victim

I found this article somewhat helpful appearing in PsychCental.com.

Trauma is a complex phenomenon. Many of us have probably experienced an event that we struggle to not only forget, but emotionally cope with. If I were to ask you if you have ever experienced a traumatic event what would you say? Was it severe, moderate, or mild? Was it long-term or short-term? Were you able to easily get over it? Whatever the case may be, a traumatic experience must be an event that we find difficult to cope with over time. Sadly, many people who tend to lack knowledge about trauma fail to recognize that anything a trauma victim comes in contact with can re-traumatize them.

For example, I previously had a client who witnessed his mother slit her throat and commit suicide. Prior to this suicide, the mother had been playing hiding-go-seek outside with all 4 of her children. This child struggled with understanding why his mother would walk away during hiding-go-seek and kill herself. Now, at the age 10, he watches movies with his father that often include crime scenes, murder, and suicide which tends to trigger memories of his mother’s suicide. He is unable to sleep at night, relax, or put the past behind him. Yet, his father is unaware of the reality that he  is possibly re-traumatizing his own son with these movies.

This article will discuss 7 things we, who are close to trauma victims, should be mindful not to do. I will also give suggestions on what we should do instead.

It is sad to say but a large amount of individual, families and parents come to therapy with unrealistic expectations about the therapeutic process. I often have parents and families ask the following questions when they see me for the first time:

  • “How often will he/she see you?” This question is asked because the unrealistic expectation is that if the child/teen sees me more often throughout the week, progress will happen faster.
  • “Will you make him/her talk?” This question is asked because the unrealistic expectation is that I am someone who should make an individual talk about the “bad” things that have happened to them in order to stimulate great progress.
  • “Has she/he talk to you about what happened to them?” This question is also asked with the unrealistic expectation that an individual, who just met me and may be slow to warm up, will open up like a fountain and start talking. Many families often tell the child/teen “your therapist is not going to judge you so just open up.”
  • “Why isn’t he/she talking about what makes him/her so mad?” This question is asked with the unrealistic expectation that if the person talks about their past, they won’t be so angry anymore.

Remainder of this article @
http://blogs.psychcentral.com/caregivers/2015/06/7-ways-to-avoid-re-traumatizing-a-trauma-victim/

(repost)

 

Why Was I A Disappointment?

Image source: differentdream.com

WHY WAS I A DISAPPOINTMENT?

why was I such a big disappointment
and what age did you start loathing me
your son wasn’t treated like that
and I tried everything in me to please

the sexual abuse wasn’t my fault
yet you made it and believed it to be
to save face in the neighborhood was so important
keeping the secret didn’t destroy you as it did me

Continue reading “Why Was I A Disappointment?”

Are you “Attached” to your Therapist?

image source: cromalens.com

I still have feelings of attachment for my present therapist of 6 years, it’s tough not to due to this stranger who has earned my trust, validated my feelings and permitted me to speak without interruption.  Not once did I ever see that expression of “whatever” or disbelief that I had become accustomed to when I was a child from my narcissistic mother. 

A psychotherapy blog I found that explains many topics is: Moments of Change where they have included an article on “Attachment in Therapy

The consulting room is an emotional candy store. It is a place where you are the only person in the world and it’s all about you.  The therapist has no other mission but to understand you just as you are and help you heal and grow.  It is as close as you can come in adult life to the one-way relationship of childhood where you receive but don’t have to give back. In the case of psychotherapy, you do give back, but in a different currency, that allows for all the feeling of being taken care of.  One therapist said, “you buy my time, but the rest is free!”

Continue reading “Are you “Attached” to your Therapist?”

Ten Tips For People Who Second-Guess Themselves

Oldest psychology joke in the book:

Two psychiatrists pass in the hall. The first says, “Hello.”
The other thinks, “I wonder what he meant by that.”

A variation:

Two people pass in the hall. One says hello and then thinks, “I wonder what I meant by that.”

 If you self-psychologize, you’re not alone. Still, you may have noticed that not everyone does. Here are some tips for us self-psychologizing second-guessers:

Continue reading “Ten Tips For People Who Second-Guess Themselves”

If My Narcissistic Mother Came Crawling Back, Do I Owe Her Anything?

I really enjoyed reading this article today titled “The Debt” in which it asked just that, do we owe parents who have abused us during our lives anything when we are adults?

See article @  Slate.com written by Emily Yoffe “The Debt”  When terrible, abusive parents come crawling back, what do their grown children owe them?

For me, I positively don’t owe my mother anything.  Here is the woman who spewed out vicious words, ignored me, displayed rare empathy, criticized, ranted, raved, and left me feeling worthless and undervalued.

My father passed away in 2012 and I (the scapegoat) only have one sibling (my brother, the golden child).

Our last conversation(s) were similar to this:

“Deb, since your dad died it’s been really lonely, I have no friends and have to do everything by myself.  You have a husband there all of the time to help you, I have no one.  It’s really depressing, all alone in the apartment with nothing to do but watch TV.  Your brother is always there if I need him, but you never seem to come over very often.  I know you don’t have the car much and I said I could drive you to appointments or to the mall, but you always say you take the bus.  We are family and we should do things for each other.”

She wants, and needs me now, yet she hasn’t changed her narcissistic personality at all, and most likely never will.  She can’t have me now, it’s too late mom you blew it.

Child Sex Abuse Case Sheds Light on Warning Signs

This brief news article appeared today, forewarning once again the importance that parents be aware of adults who are in contact with their children.  Note to parents out there:  If your child is courageous enough to approach you, please validate and believe him/her.

NASHVILLE, Tenn. (WKRN) — A West Meade man is in jail accused of repeatedly molesting an 11-year-old boy.  Investigators say, 44-year-old Darrell Fisher was a “father-figure” to his victim and that is often how something like this starts.

Fisher was reportedly often at places where children were though he didn’t have any children of his own.

He coached for a club lacrosse team started by parents at JT Moore Middle School from 1998-2008. He was a boy scout leader at least from 2001 and he also started a military history group for young men.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, “stranger danger” is rare. A child often knows his or her abuser.

The Center for Disease Control says, one in six boys are sexually abused before they’re 18. For girls, it’s one in four.

A few warning signs of child sexual abuse are if your children becomes withdrawn, self-destructive and/or shows poor school performance. Sometimes, though, there are not outward symptoms.

Continue reading “Child Sex Abuse Case Sheds Light on Warning Signs”

PTSD & Narcissism ~ and that feeling of Emptiness

I experienced emptiness during my childhood as a daughter of a narcissistic mother who either ignored me most days or spewed vicious words of criticism and anger.  Which was worse, being ignored or the vicious words ~ either way I felt empty.

My previous postings on Validation & Childhood Emotional Neglect include examples of emptiness.

 The article below is from an article on PsychCentral.com

Emptiness. It’s not a disorder in and of itself, like anxiety or depression. Nor is it experienced by most people as a symptom that interferes with their lives. It’s more a generic feeling of discomfort, a lack of being filled up that may come and go. Some people feel it physically, as an ache or an empty space in their belly or chest. Others experience it more as an emotional numbness. You may have a general sense that you’re missing something that everybody else has, or that you’re on the outside looking in. Something just isn’t right, but it’s hard to name. It makes you feel somehow set apart, disconnected, as if you’re not enjoying life as you should.

People who don’t have it don’t understand. But people who feel it know:

In many ways, emptiness or numbness is worse than pain. Many people have told me that they would far prefer to feel anything to nothing. It’s very hard to acknowledge, make sense of, or put words to something that is absent. Emptiness seems like nothing to most people. And nothing is nothing, neither bad nor good, right?

But in the case of a human being’s internal experience, nothing is definitely something. “Empty” is actually a feeling in and of itself. And I have discovered that it is a feeling that can be very intense and powerful. In fact, it has the power to drive people to do extreme things to escape it.

Empty is the “unfeeling” feeling. It’s the painful sense that some vital ingredient is missing from inside. I often have talked about the root cause of empty feelings: Childhood Emotional Neglect (CEN). But the type and depth of emptiness you feel is determined by the type and depth of CEN that you grew up with, plus some other parenting factors. Continue reading “PTSD & Narcissism ~ and that feeling of Emptiness”

Avoid ‘overvaluing’ your child to prevent Narcissism

image: brainwashingchildren.com

‘Overvaluing’ your child to prevent narcissism?  Now that’s an interesting topic.

If you want to avoid having narcissistic children, do not “overvalue” them. That is the take-home message of a new study from researchers at The Ohio State University in Columbus and the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

This article appeared on Medical News Today:

The researchers undertook the study in an effort to understand the origins of narcissism. They claim that theirs is the first prospective study to investigate how narcissism develops over time.

The team recruited 565 children in the Netherlands and their parents. The children were aged between 7 and 11 when the study began. Participants completed standardized psychological research surveys four times over the course of the study, with a 6-month interval between each survey.

In the surveys, the parents were asked to rate on a scale how much they agreed with statements such as “My child is a great example for other children to follow.”

The children and parents were both asked how much emotional warmth the parents showed, by rating the extent to which they agreed with statements such as “I let my child know I love him/her” or “My father/mother lets me know he/she loves me.”

The researchers were interested in distinguishing narcissism from self-esteem among the participants, and so the children were measured for both qualities.

“People with high self-esteem think they’re as good as others, whereas narcissists think they’re better than others,” says Brad Bushman, co-author of the study and professor of communication and psychology at Ohio State.

Continue reading “Avoid ‘overvaluing’ your child to prevent Narcissism”

Narcissistic Personality and Child Emotional Neglect

Image: levo.com

This article in PsychCental.com talks about both (narcissism and neglect), and covers many instances in my life.  Written By  called “A Surprising Cause of Narcissism”.  To mention also, I’ve been the life of “Bill” in this article.

Marcy

Marcy is a bright and beautiful woman. She often says that her main goal in life is “to get to the top of the heap, and stay there.”  Marcy puts her all into everything she does, and doesn’t mind stepping on a few people on her way to the top. When she meets new people, she usually leads off with her accomplishments, which impresses some, but turns others off. Marcy has very little compassion for herself and very little for others. Her biggest, most carefully guarded secret fear: that she is actually a nothing.

Bill

Bill is living a life of contradiction. He is loved by many, but he feels unworthy of love. From the outside, his life appears full; on the inside, he feels empty. Bill does fine in his work, but he never feels successful enough. He has plenty of compassion for others, but little for himself. His biggest, most carefully guarded secret: that he is deeply, bafflingly different from everyone else; that he is deeply, bafflingly flawed.

Marcy has narcissistic personality disorder, and Bill is living with the effects of Childhood Emotional Neglect (CEN). They seem so very different. What could these two personalities possibly have in common?

In many ways, people like Bill who grew up with CEN are the opposite of narcissistic.

Unlike narcissists, folks who grew up in households where their feelings are ignored (CEN) tend to be overly selfless. They have difficulty saying “no,” asking for help, and depending on others. Because they’re not aware enough of their own preferences and needs, they tend to go along too easily with other people’s needs and preferences. Continue reading “Narcissistic Personality and Child Emotional Neglect”

31 Honest Answers to ‘How Are You?’

I was hoping an article about this very subject would appear.  Whenever meeting someone for lunch, a colleague that I haven’t seen since 2011 or a gathering, I’m usually fumbling around for words.

This article appeared in The Mighty.com written by 

When someone asks, “How are you?” do you answer honestly?

This question is often thrown around as a casual greeting, so much so that we default to “I’m good!” or “I’m fine!” — even with our closest friends and family. And while we’re maybe less hesitant to open up about a stomach ache or that we’ve come down with the flu, our true emotional state can feel like a dirty secret — we don’t want to give it up.

So we asked our Mighty community — people who experience disability, disease, mental illness, parent children with special needs and more —  how they’re really doing. What we got was a collection of honest, inspiring and heartbreaking answers.

How are you? This lovely article continues @
http://themighty.com/2015/11/31-honest-answers-to-how-are-you/

What is Biofeedback Therapy? for Migraine and Chronic Pain etc.

I was never aware of this type of therapy so thought an interesting topic to include for information. It especially received my attention when it mentioned chronic pain such as migraine/headache treatment. 

Biofeedback therapy involves training patients to control physiological processes such as muscle tension, blood pressure, or heart rate.

These processes usually occur involuntarily, however, patients who receive help from a biofeedback therapist can learn how to completely manipulate them at will.

Biofeedback is typically used to treat chronic pain, urinary incontinence, high blood pressure, tension headache, and migraine headache.

The three most common types of biofeedback therapy are:

  • Thermal biofeedback – which measures skin temperature
  • Electromyography – measures muscle tension
  • Neurofeedback – measures brain wave activity

Biofeedback is particularly effective at treating conditions brought on by severe stress. When a person is stressed, their internal processes such as blood pressure can become irregular. Biofeedback therapy teaches these patients certain relaxation and mental exercises which can alleviate their symptoms.

Therapists can measure a patient’s performance by attaching electrodes to their skin and displaying the processes on a monitor. Eventually patients learn how to control these processes without the need to be monitored.

During a biofeedback session, electrodes will be attached to the patient’s skin, which sends information to a monitoring box. The biofeedback therapist reads the measurements and through trial and error singles out mental activities that help regulate the patient’s bodily processes.

Sessions are typically less than an hour long – most people will begin to see positive results after 8 sessions. However, some patients may need a as many as 50 sessions.

The remainder of this post @

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/265802.php

 

Cyberstalking or Stalking ~ which is worse?

An article on Psychcentral.com writes about this very subject.

In a new study, researchers explored and compared the experiences of people who had been victims of stalking or cyberstalking (harassing or threatening via the Internet).  They found that victims of cyberstalking had to engage in more ‘self-protective’ behaviors, pay higher out-of-pocket costs to combat the problem, and experienced greater fear over time than traditional stalking victims.

Continue reading “Cyberstalking or Stalking ~ which is worse?”

Childhood Abuses: Sometimes emotional more harmful than sexual or physical

I can identify with this article, as I too was emotionally and sexually abused.  Because of the sexual abuse, I’m still pondering if the emotional abuse would have still taken place or if that was the reason.  My mother was toxic, what spewed out of her mouth was hurtful, undeserved and damaging;  I still hear those words in my mind today.  ~~ Deb

Children who are emotionally abused and neglected face similar and sometimes worse mental health problems as children who are physically or sexually abused, yet psychological abuse is rarely addressed in prevention programs or in treating victims, according to a new study published by the American Psychological Association.

Continue reading “Childhood Abuses: Sometimes emotional more harmful than sexual or physical”

Imagine your child handcuffed in school because of ADHD?

Officer sued after handcuffing school children with ADHD

Now this is taking things too far, the child now thinks he’s a criminal for a disorder that isn’t even his fault.

FRANKFORT, Ky. — Two northern Kentucky women have sued a county sheriff and one of his school resource officers for placing their two disabled elementary school children in handcuffs.

The 8-year-old boy and the 9-year-old girl and their mothers are identified in the lawsuit only by their initials. The children have both been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The lawsuit says school officials asked School Resource Officer Kevin Sumner to help after the children were being disruptive in class. A report from the sheriff’s office says the children tried to hit Sumner.

The lawsuit says Sumner placed the handcuffs around the children’s biceps behind their backs.

A spokesman for the Kenton County Sheriff’s Office said Sheriff Charles Korzenborn had not been notified of the lawsuit and declined to comment. An attorney for Sumner said he acted appropriately.

Why doesn’t she just leave him?

Really?  And women should just up and leave an abusive relationship; as if it were that easy.

‘Why doesn’t she just leave?’ is a timeworn question about women trapped in relationships that are physically and/or emotionally abusive to them.  Economic dependence is clearly part of the story — many women lack the financial means to leave and find themselves trapped by both poverty and abuse.

Of the women who do attempt to escape the abuse, some opt to petition a judge for a civil restraining order, also called a Protection From Abuse (PFA) order, for protection from abuse, harassment, threats, or intimidation. Research shows that PFAs can promote women’s safety and help women manage the threat of abuse.

Continue reading “Why doesn’t she just leave him?”

Are you bullied by your Children?

Image source: http://discipline.about.com/

I found this article interesting, as my husband and I frequently comment on the way children behave while out in public places, and how different times are compared to how strict our parents were with us.  Last week, we seldom eat out and our dinner was spoiled at a restaurant (not fast food), where children from three different families were either screaming or running everywhere.  In my opinion, the kids aren’t at fault; it’s the parents.

Have you ever seen a child bully or boss around his parents? A child who talks down to them, disrespects or even mocks them? Embarrassing, isn’t it?

A generation or two ago, it would have been unthinkable for children to bully their parents. Today, nearly everyone knows a parent who is bullied by his or her child. Pay a visit to your local playground or stroll through a shopping mall. You’re bound to see the bullied parent dynamic in action.

Continue reading “Are you bullied by your Children?”

Yes, shopping at the mall is way more important to me, so what if my kid dies in the car….

Shopping and work means more than anything else in the world to you doesn’t it?

Who leaves their child in a car on a scorching hot day?  Who leaves their dog in a car on a scorching hot day?  Do you think that keeping the window open a crack to let some air in the car in 100 degree heat is going to save your child or dog, Really? Would it help you if you were sitting in the car?

There is no excuse for this.  Too many idiots choose shopping at a store or mall much more important, and for unforgiving reasons leave children or dogs in cars.  Don’t you ever give it one iota of a thought what could happen?  No, you want those clothes, shoes or groceries badly, oh I see.

Why do we have to remind them every year, do they think their children are plastic dolls that they don’t matter?  It only takes tortuous minutes to die.

I bawled when I read this, and couldn’t finish the entire article:
http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/dog-dies-after-being-left-5975048

http://abcnews.go.com/US/woman-breaks-window-rescue-toddler-locked-hot-car/story?id=32572693

http://www.kgw.com/story/news/local/animal/2015/07/21/dog-left-in-hot-car-all-day-dies-in-lincoln-city/30466889/

Are you the Black Sheep in your family? I know I sure was

Image source: so-many-ancestors.blogspot.com

That was me, the black sheep in our family of four. There was only me and my brother, he was treated like gold while I….you get the picture.

On their PsychCentral.com blog, this article, written by: Jonice Webb, Ph.D, explains:

I’ve met many Black Sheep. It’s my job.

In a recent post called Black Sheep, I talked about some common myths, and how Black Sheep are not what they appear to be. Surprisingly, they are simply a product of family dynamics.

But today, Black Sheep, I have three messages just for you:

1. Research Supports You Continue reading “Are you the Black Sheep in your family? I know I sure was”

Narcissistic Parents – The most harmful kind of parent

This well-written article is from::   on PsychCentral.com/Psychoanalysis Now (blog)

Over the years I have often been asked what is the most harmful thing a parent can do to a child. There are many harmful things a parent can do, too many to point out. It is easier to focus on the kind of parent that does most harm.

The most harmful parents are the parents who have a narcissistic need to think of themselves as great parents. Because of this need, they are unable to look at their parenting in an objective way. And they are unable to hear their children’s complaints about their parenting.

Such parents indoctrinate their children from an early age to think of their parents in only the most positive ways. Any other kind of thinking is considered family treason. If any of their children develop behavioral problems, they see such problems as an accusation of their parenting. Their response is, “Why am I so unlucky as to have this bad seed?” Not for a moment do they ever consider that anything they did might have had an effect on their children.

Continue reading “Narcissistic Parents – The most harmful kind of parent”

AND YOU THINK YOUR HUG MAKES UP FOR SLAPPING ME ACROSS THE FACE?

Some things hugs can’t fix: Parental warmth does not remove anxiety that follows punishment

A loving mom can’t overcome the anxiety and aggression caused by corporal punishment, and her otherwise warm demeanor may make it worse, according to research led by Duke University that was recently published in the Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology.

 “If you believe that you can shake your children or slap them across the face and then smooth things over gradually by smothering them with love, you are mistaken,” wrote lead researcher Jennifer E. Lansford on the Child and Family Blog.  Lansford is a research professor at the Social Science Research Institute at Duke University.  “Being very warm with a child whom you hit in this manner rarely makes things better.  It can make a child more, not less, anxious.”

Continue reading “AND YOU THINK YOUR HUG MAKES UP FOR SLAPPING ME ACROSS THE FACE?”

Bullying

The topic of a TV show I watched last night, centered on what kids would do when put into a situation where someone was being bullied.  It was interesting; some felt uncomfortable yet didn’t want to speak up, a few spoke, another went to the person’s defense, another comforted the person being bullied.  You know what’s right, but would you defend that person being bullied in a situation that would involve you?

Image source:  cheeta-fire (polyvore)

What are disorders ~ dyslexia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia and dysgraphia?

I found this information on a blog site “The Inside Lane” about these disorders, and explains via visuals.

Continue reading “What are disorders ~ dyslexia, dyscalculia, dyspraxia and dysgraphia?”

Attachment to your Therapist

I am struggling with this problem of attachment to my therapist of six years, and was oblivious to what extent until we began considering termination.  The biggie for me is losing contact with the one person who has gained my trust, validated my feelings, listened and permitted me to speak without interruption, and not once had that expression of “whatever” and so on….  I never received this from my toxic mother.

A psychotherapy blog I found that explains many topics is : Moments of Change where they have included an article on “Attachment in Therapy

The consulting room is an emotional candy store. It is a place where you are the only person in the world and it’s all about you. The therapist has no other mission but to understand you just as you are and help you heal and grow. It is as close as you can come in adult life to the one-way relationship of childhood where you receive but don’t have to give back. In the case of psychotherapy, you do give back, but in a different currency, that allows for all the feeling of being taken care of. One therapist said, “you buy my time, but the rest is free!”

Continue reading “Attachment to your Therapist”

Why Was I A Disappointment?

Image source: differentdream.com

WHY WAS I A DISAPPOINTMENT?

why was I such a big disappointment
and what age did you start loathing me
your son wasn’t treated like that
and I tried everything in me to please

the sexual abuse wasn’t my fault
yet you made it and believed it to be
to save face in the neighborhood was so important
keeping the secret didn’t destroy you as it did me

Continue reading “Why Was I A Disappointment?”

Why doesn’t she just leave?

Really?  And women should just up and leave an abusive relationship; as if it were that easy.

‘Why doesn’t she just leave?’ is a timeworn question about women trapped in relationships that are physically and/or emotionally abusive to them.  Economic dependence is clearly part of the story — many women lack the financial means to leave and find themselves trapped by both poverty and abuse.

Of the women who do attempt to escape the abuse, some opt to petition a judge for a civil restraining order, also called a Protection From Abuse (PFA) order, for protection from abuse, harassment, threats, or intimidation. Research shows that PFAs can promote women’s safety and help women manage the threat of abuse.

Continue reading “Why doesn’t she just leave?”

Is Face-to-Face Bullying Worse Than Cyberbullying?

Face-to-face bullying is more cruel and harsh than online attacks, a survey of school students found. The findings of this study indicate that significantly more victims perceived traditional bullying to be more harsh and cruel than cyberbullying. “It clearly indicates the feelings of the children and the very real threat they have of being physically harmed by another child,” the lead investigator said.

The study showed 59 percent of the children participants felt face-to-face bullying was worse for them than being cyberbullied.  Twenty-six per cent reported that both forms of bullying were equally hurtful and the remaining 15 per cent perceived cyberbullying to be worse.

Continue reading “Is Face-to-Face Bullying Worse Than Cyberbullying?”

Bullying May Have Lasting Health Effects on Kids

Kids who are picked on by their peers may see lasting effects on their physical and mental well-being — especially if the bullying is allowed to persist for years, a new study suggests.

The study found that kids who are chronically bullied seem to fare the worst:  Those continually picked on from fifth grade to 10th grade had the lowest scores on measures of physical and emotional health.  Kids who were bullied at a younger age but saw the problem fade tended to do better.  But they were still worse off than their peers who’d never been victimized.

Continue reading “Bullying May Have Lasting Health Effects on Kids”

Is Your Coach A Bully?

This article appeared in the (New York Times), titled “My Coach, The Bully“, written by:  Jan Hoffman, and it describes bullying.

When Dr. Nancy Swigonski, a pediatrician who often talks with families about bullying, saw a local high school coach yelling at players, calling them stupid and lazy, she tried to speak with her.

The coach went on the attack.

Continue reading “Is Your Coach A Bully?”

Is growth in ADHD ’caused by marketing’?

I thought this was an interesting article on ADHD, however, I’m curious to see how parents and others who are caring for ADHD children feel about what these “experts” say.

“The global surge in ADHD [attention deficit hyperactivity disorder] diagnosis has more to do with marketing than medicine, according to experts,” the Mail Online reports.

But these experts are sociologists, not clinicians, and they present no new peer-reviewed clinical evidence.

Continue reading “Is growth in ADHD ’caused by marketing’?”